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Prospective mechanism of how hydrogen inhalation may prevent the oxidative stress and inflammation due to COVID-19

Possible mechanisms of alleviation properties of molecular hydrogen on COVID-19 patients. •OH: hydroxyl radical; O2-: superoxide anion; ONOO-: peroxynitrite anion; H2O2: hydrogen peroxide; H2: molecular hydrogen; NOX: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase; AMPK: 5 adenosine monophosphate- (AMP-) activated protein kinase; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; PI3K: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; Keap1: Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; Nrf2: nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2; MAF: small MAF protein; ARE: Nrf2-antioxidant response element; SOD: superoxide dismutase; CAT: catalase; GPx: glutathione peroxidase; P53: tumor protein; Bax: BCL2-associated X protein; Bcl-2: B-cell lymphoma 2 protein; Bcl-XL: B-cell lymphoma–extra-large protein; IL-12: interleukin 12; IL-1β: interleukin 1-beta; IL-6: interleukin 6; IL-8: interleukin 8; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor α; NF-κB: nuclear factor-kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells.
Disclaimer: This content consists of medical papers and academic information and is not intended to diagnose, treat diseases, or replace a doctor's advice, and all outcomes may vary from person to person.
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